In ChargeHub’s first blog post of the year we did a quick review of Canada’s public EV charging station infrastructure status as of January 1st 2016. One metric from this review was: Canadian EV drivers have 2,908 public EVSE at their disposal. This is an important metric since the number of public EV charging stations in operation is often the measuring stick used to assess the advancement of EV infrastructure in a region. However, this metric is only one among many indicators of the health the charging infrastructure in a given region. Many factors have an influence on public charging station deployment.
Starting with this blog post, ChargeHub is publishing a series of articles analyzing Canada’s current EV infrastructure status from different angles.
This first article of the series looks at:
- Public EV Charging Stations per Capita
- Public EV Charging Stations per Registered Vehicle
- Public EV Charging Stations per Registered Electric Vehicle
- 82 Public EV Charging Stations per 1M Inhabitants
- 130 Public EV Charging Stations per 1M Registered Vehicles
- 171 Public EV Charging Stations per 1K Registered Plug-In Vehicles
Top 3 Provinces
The province with the highest ratio of vehicles (all fuel types) per capita is Alberta, followed by Saskatchewan and New Brunswick. In terms of electric vehicles per capita, the top three provinces are Quebec, British Columbia and Ontario.
Public EV Charging Stations Per Capita
- 78 public Level 2 per 1M inhabitants in Canada
- 4 public DCFC per 1M inhabitants in Canada
As mentioned in ChargeHub’s blog post about the 2015 EV charging infrastructure highlights, Quebec, with 40% of the Level 2 stations in the country, is a key contributor to Canada’s charging station growth. Nevertheless, it’s Prince Edward Island that has the highest number of Level 2 charging stations per capita followed by British Columbia and then Quebec. Of course, Prince Edward Island is the province with the smallest population in Canada.
To put things in perspective, Quebec, the province with the most EVSE in the country would need to add a minimum of 530 Level 2 stations to have the same Level 2 EVSE per capita ratio as PEI. At the other end of the spectrum, Ontario, the most populous province would need 2,106 more stations to match PEI’s ratio.
A more apples to apples comparison would be with British Columbia. In this case Quebec and Ontario would have to add 261 and 1,634 Level 2 stations respectively in order to match B.C.’s L2 per capita numbers.
The three leaders in terms of DC Fast Chargers (DCFC) per capita are: British Columbia, Quebec and Ontario. Currently, only 6 provinces have public DCFC available and only 3 of them have at least one CHAdeMO port, one SAE Combo port and one Tesla Supercharger port.
Even though Quebec and British Columbia almost have the same total number of DCFC, British Columbia’s DCFC per capita is twice that of Quebec.
To match British Columbia’s ratio of public DCFC per capita;
- Quebec would need to add 37 public DCFC.
- Ontario would need to add 79 public DCFC.
Public EV Charging Stations Per Registered Vehicle
- 120 public Level 2 stations per 1M registered vehicles in Canada
- 7 public DCFC per 1M registered vehicles in Canada
Alberta, the province with the highest ratio of registered vehicles per capita, is the province with the lowest number of Level 2 charging stations per vehicle. To match British Columbia ratio of Level 2 stations per vehicle, Alberta would need to add 788 new Level 2 stations to its network.
Of the three provinces with the highest number of vehicles per capita (Alberta, Saskatchewan and New Brunswick) only Alberta has some public DCFC. One year ago, it had its first public DCFC installation with the 4 Tesla Superchargers in Red Deer. It now has 8 with the addition of the 4 SuperChargers in Canmore in 2015. For the moment, the Tesla SuperChargers are the only type of public DCFC available in the three provinces with the highest number of vehicles per capita.
Public EV Charging Stations Per Registered Electric Vehicles
- 162 public Level 2 stations per 1K plug-in vehicles in Canada
- 9 public DCFC per 1K plug-in vehicles in Canada
Quebec has both the highest total number of Level 2 charging stations and the most registered plug-in vehicles. However, its ratio of Level 2 stations per plug-in vehicles is one of the lowest in the country.
Excluding the provinces without public DCFC, Quebec has the lowest ratio of public DCFC per plug-in vehicles.
EV Charging Stations Vs. Market Penetration Of Electric Cars
Overall, when we analyze the different statistics presented in this document individually, it is difficult to determine if there are clear trends or relationships and even more so to claim without a doubt any causal interaction mechanism.
Nevertheless, in order to try and unearth potential areas of interest, we plotted the different ratios for each province on an X-Y scatter plot against the number of charging stations in a province both for Level 2 and DCFC.
The sample size is small but the initial results obtained are interesting.
The graphs reveal an almost perfect linear trend (R2=0.985) between the number of Level 2 public charging stations in a province and the market penetration of EV’s in that province. This result does not necessarily imply any direct causal relationship between the two variables. However it is a metric worth tracking over time as more EV and EVSE make their way into Canadian provinces.
It’s only by digging deeper in other factors surrounding EVSE infrastructure deployment that we may be able to shed more light on this interesting trend.
After seeing this trend with L2 EVSE, we rapidly checked if there was something similar going on with DCFC. The initial results did not show a strong linear trend between the number of DCFC in a province and EV market penetration.
However, when removing Tesla vehicles and Tesla Superchargers out of the equation, a possible linear trend between EV market penetration and the number of DCFC in a province emerged. (R2=0.671 vs. R2=0.933)
Besides the total number of charging stations in each province, the total number of locations has an important impact on the development of an EV friendly network. Would this EV infrastructure status report be completely different if we look at the number of locations instead of the number charging stations?
This will be the subject of ChargeHub’s next article.